Goodman and Kruskal’s lambda coefficient can be symmetric, where you do not have to specify which variable is dependent, and asymmetric where the dependent variable is specified.

ε_{1} is the overall non-modal frequency and ε_{2} is the sum of the non-modal frequencies for each value of the independent variable.

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*Statistical concepts explained visually* - Includes many concepts such as sample size, hypothesis tests, or logistic regression, explained by Stephanie Glen, founder of StatisticsHowTo.

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